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Master the Programming and Interfacing of the Microprocessor 8086 with this Comprehensive PDF Guide


Free Download Microprocessor 8086 Pdf Book




If you are interested in learning about the microprocessor 8086, one of the most influential and widely used chips in the history of computing, you might want to download a pdf book that covers its features, architecture, and applications. In this article, we will provide you with some information about the microprocessor 8086 and how to download a pdf book for free.




Free Download Microprocessor 8086 Pdf Book


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Introduction




A microprocessor is a small electronic device that performs arithmetic and logic operations on data. It is the brain of a computer system that controls its functions and processes. A microprocessor consists of several components, such as registers, memory, input/output ports, and an instruction set that defines the operations it can perform.


The microprocessor 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor designed by Intel in the late 1970s. It is the first member of the x86 family of microprocessors, which includes many popular CPUs used in personal computers. The microprocessor 8086 has an external data bus of 16 bits and an address bus of 20 bits, which allows it to access up to 1 MB of memory. It also has a powerful instruction set that supports operations like multiplication and division easily.


The microprocessor 8086 is important to learn about because it is the basis of many modern computer systems and software. It introduced many concepts and features that are still used today, such as pipelining, segmentation, and interrupt handling. It also paved the way for the development of more advanced microprocessors, such as the 80186, 80286, and beyond.


Features of microprocessor 8086




The microprocessor 8086 has many features that make it a versatile and efficient device. Some of these features are:


  • Instruction queue: The microprocessor 8086 has an instruction queue that can store up to six bytes of instructions from the memory. This allows it to fetch instructions faster and execute them in parallel with the previous ones.



  • 16-bit architecture: The microprocessor 8086 has a 16-bit architecture, which means that it can process data in units of 16 bits at a time. This results in faster processing and more accuracy than an 8-bit architecture.



  • Two modes of operation: The microprocessor 8086 can operate in two modes: maximum mode and minimum mode. Maximum mode is suitable for systems with multiple processors, while minimum mode is suitable for systems with a single processor.



  • Pipelining: The microprocessor 8086 uses a technique called pipelining, which divides the execution cycle into two stages: fetch stage and execute stage. The fetch stage can prefetch up to six bytes of instructions from the memory and store them in the queue. The execute stage can execute these instructions one by one. This improves the performance and speed of the microprocessor.



Comparison between microprocessor 8085 and 8086




The microprocessor 8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by Intel in 1976. It is a predecessor of the microprocessor 8086 and has some similarities and differences with it. Here is a table that compares some of the aspects of the two microprocessors:



Aspect


Microprocessor 8085


Microprocessor 8086


Size


8-bit


16-bit


Address bus


16-bit


20-bit


Memory


Up to 64 KB


Up to 1 MB


Instruction


No instruction queue


Has instruction queue


I/O


Up to 256 I/O ports


Up to 65,536 I/O ports


Cost


Low


High


Architecture of microprocessor 8086




The architecture of the microprocessor 8086 is composed of two main units: the bus interface unit (BIU) and the execution unit (EU). The BIU is responsible for fetching instructions from the memory, decoding them, and sending them to the EU. The EU is responsible for executing the instructions and performing arithmetic and logic operations on data. The following diagram shows the architecture of the microprocessor 8086:



+-----------------+ +-----------------+ Instruction Arithmetic Queue Logic Unit +-----------------+ +-----------------+ Instruction Control Decoder Unit +-----------------+ +-----------------+ Segment General Registers Purpose Registers +-----------------+ +-----------------+ Address Adder Stack Pointer Register +-----------------+ +-----------------+ ^ ^ v v +-----------------+ +-----------------+ Data Bus Data Bus Buffer Buffer +-----------------+ +-----------------+ ^ ^ v v +-----------------+ +-----------------+ Address Bus Address Bus Buffer Buffer +-----------------+ +-----------------+ BIU EU


The BIU and the EU communicate with each other through an internal data bus of 16 bits. The BIU also communicates with the external devices through an external data bus of 16 bits and an external address bus of 20 bits. The EU also communicates with some special registers, such as flags, stack pointer, and segment registers.


The microprocessor 8086 has four types of registers:



  • Data registers: These are four general purpose registers that can store data temporarily. They are AX, BX, CX, and DX. Each register can be divided into two 8-bit registers: AH and AL for AX, BH and BL for BX, CH and CL for CX, and DH and DL for DX.



  • Pointer registers: These are two registers that can store the addresses of data or instructions. They are SI (source index) and DI (destination index).



  • Index registers: These are two registers that can store the offsets of data or instructions within a segment. They are BP (base pointer) and SP (stack pointer).



How to download microprocessor 8086 pdf book for free?




If you want to download a pdf book that covers the microprocessor 8086 in detail, you have several options to choose from. There are many sources of free pdf books on the internet that offer various topics and levels of difficulty. Some of these sources are:


  • Internet Archive: This is a non-profit digital library that provides free access to millions of books, movies, music, and other media. You can search for the microprocessor 8086 pdf book by using keywords or browsing categories. For example, you can find a book called "The 8086 microprocessor: programming and interfacing the PC" by Kenneth J. Ayala. You can download the pdf file or read it online.



  • Google Drive: This is a cloud storage service that allows you to store and share files online. You can also find and download pdf books that are uploaded by other users. For example, you can find a book called "8086 MicroProcessor.pdf" by using the link https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2hClAamBu3NWTltNGtaajhqV2s/edit?usp=sharing. You can download the pdf file or view it online.



  • Archive.org: This is another digital library that provides free access to books, software, music, and other media. You can search for the microprocessor 8086 pdf book by using keywords or browsing categories. For example, you can find a book called "The 8088 and 8086 microprocessors: programming, interfacing, software, hardware, and applications" by Walter A. Triebel. You can download the pdf file or read it online.



To download and open a pdf file from any of these sources, you need to follow these steps:


  • Click on the link or search for the book title on the website.



  • Select the pdf format from the available options.



  • Click on the download button or icon.



  • Save the file to your computer or device.



  • Open the file with a pdf reader program or app.



Conclusion




The microprocessor 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor that was designed by Intel in the late 1970s. It is one of the most influential and widely used chips in the history of computing. It has many features and advantages that make it a versatile and efficient device. It also has a rich architecture that consists of various components and registers. It is important to learn about the microprocessor 8086 because it is the basis of many modern computer systems and software. If you want to download a pdf book that covers the microprocessor 8086 in detail, you can choose from several sources of free pdf books on the internet.


FAQs




  • Q: What is the difference between maximum mode and minimum mode of operation?



  • A: Maximum mode is suitable for systems with multiple processors, while minimum mode is suitable for systems with a single processor. In maximum mode, some pins of the microprocessor are used for communication and synchronization with other processors. In minimum mode, these pins are used for memory and I/O interfacing.



  • Q: What are the advantages of pipelining?



  • A: Pipelining is a technique that divides the execution cycle into two stages: fetch stage and execute stage. The fetch stage can prefetch up to six bytes of instructions from the memory and store them in the queue. The execute stage can execute these instructions one by one. This improves the performance and speed of the microprocessor.



  • Q: What are the flags in the status register?



  • A: The flags in the status register are bits that indicate the status of the microprocessor after an operation. The flags are CF (carry flag), PF (parity flag), AF (auxiliary carry flag), ZF (zero flag), SF (sign flag), TF (trap flag), IF (interrupt flag), DF (direction flag), and OF (overflow flag).



  • Q: What are the segments in the microprocessor 8086?



  • A: The segments in the microprocessor 8086 are logical divisions of the memory that are used for addressing and protection. The microprocessor 8086 has four segment registers: CS (code segment), DS (data segment), SS (stack segment), and ES (extra segment). Each segment register can store a 16-bit value that represents the base address of a segment.



  • Q: What are the sources of interrupts in the microprocessor 8086?



  • A: The interrupts in the microprocessor 8086 are signals that cause the microprocessor to stop the current execution and jump to a predefined subroutine. The sources of interrupts can be internal or external. Internal interrupts are caused by software instructions, such as INT, INTO, and IRET. External interrupts are caused by hardware devices, such as keyboard, timer, and disk.



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